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Progressive Web Apps and Mobile Apps

This article was written over 18 months ago and may contain information that is out of date. Some content may be relevant but please refer to the relevant official documentation or available resources for the latest information.


In a talk by Alex Russell titled, "The Mobile Web: MIA", Alex discussed a number of issues facing the expansion of the web platform on mobile devices. He noted that, "People don't use the web the way they lean on it, and rely on it, and come to depend on it on desktop." In his talk, he noted that people use the web about 4% of the time they are using phones, and dropping. The rest of the time, users are typically interacting with mobile apps, rather than the browser.

Much of this is driven by the fact that companies that own the platforms (Google and Apple, in particular) are primarily focused on native app developments. This focus on mobile app development pushes the market to accept the importance of a mobile app, and drive users to leave the web for a native experience. Mobile app development locks experiences to devices and operating systems, which increases the cost of development. Users, in turn, grow to expect mobile applications, even for simple tasks such as viewing bus routes or filling out a form.

As web developers, we know there is another option for app development. Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) are built with standard web technologies - HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and modern browser APIs - to provide an enhanced experience when using them on supported platforms. By utilizing the latest browser features, web developers can construct the same experiences users expect of native applications. These features include: accessing the camera, notifications, Bluetooth and network information- even augmented/virtual reality and payments. Browsers have been working to support these features for years, and some companies (such as Twitter) have been building PWAs to provide an improved experience for their platforms.

Let's say that we have a company, BetterX, which is looking to build a new app for their users. The primary goal is to provide an excellent experience for mobile users, including offline support and hardware features such as notifications and payments. We will explore and compare the benefits of native mobile applications and PWAs, and discuss why each platform may be the better choice.

Progressive Web Apps - The Open Web

One of the key benefits when considering a progressive web app is that we are utilizing modern web development tools to build our application. As web developers, we are already familiar with a number of complex tasks, such as state management, caching, and performance optimization. To build a PWA, we need to take these concepts to their natural conclusions. By utilizing a service worker to cache assets and IndexedDB or other methods to store local data, we can build a system that is capable of working fully offline. By using network detection, our application can determine whether an internet connection is available, and provide that information to the user.

Another benefit of building with web technologies is that we have a better chance of achieving the goal of, "write once, run anywhere". By utilizing standard architecture patterns in our application, and relying on progressive enhancement as the browser/platform we are running on allows, our PWA can run on both mobile devices (as an installed app) or on browsers. Most developers are already familiar with responsive design, which allows a website to change its appearance depending on the viewport or device. The same concepts can be applied to a PWA, incrementing our functionality as the device allows it, and providing a fallback for when certain features are not available.

Web development also has the benefit of traditionally being cheaper than mobile app development. Smaller companies don't always have the time or money to invest in a mobile development team. Most of them, however, do have a website. By utilizing some of the APIs available to progressive web applications, these shops and companies can provide a mobile experience. Also, if a website/web app is built with mobile devices in mind, the time it takes to build a fully functional PWA could be weeks, compared to a brand new mobile application taking months.

PWAs can also be significantly smaller than their native alternatives. In a report by Google, the Twitter PWA "requires less than 3% of the device storage space compared to Twitter for Android". As fewer mobile devices have ports for expanded storage space, the size of applications becomes increasingly more important.


However, there are some drawbacks to choosing a progressive web app. Users expect to find mobile applications in the app store, not on a website. In his talk, Alex Russell shares a screen of an Android device with a Google search bar at the time, and a row of icons at the bottom, including the Google Play Store. He explains that people click on the search bar when they are looking for "answers", and click on the store when they are looking for "experiences". For PWAs, the way to install them is to visit the URL, and click on the install button when prompted. This is not how users have been trained to find apps for their smartphones.

It's also not clear to a user what installing a PWA achieves. On an Android device where a user installs a PWA, an icon for that app appears on their desktop as any other app would. However, depending on the app, this could be a complete experience, including offline support, or it could simply be a wrapper to load a website. In many cases, a PWA is little more than an enhanced bookmark on a mobile phone.

Mobile Applications - Platform Builders

Mobile apps are the standard established by Google and Apple for delivering user experiences on phones and tablets. Apps are an expected feature of any new platform - it's rare to see a new service thrive without a presence in the Google Play Store, or Apple App Store. Keystone applications, like Facebook or Twitter, are regularly highlighted by these platforms as a way to bring new users into their walled gardens.

Users are trained to search for, and install, mobile applications. Often, websites will guide users directly to the respective app store. On iPhones and iPads, the app store is the only way for apps to be installed on a phone, making the store even more crucial to a product's success on the platform. Since Apple does not support PWAs in Safari, this makes mobile development a requirement to reach customers within their ecosystems.

Mobile development has first-class support from both Apple and Google, providing access to APIs and features as new hardware is released. Apps being developed for newer devices can do more, and utilize more resources than ever before. Resource-intensive apps like Adobe Photoshop or Procreate can leverage these resources to achieve results previously held only on desktops and laptops.

Modern mobile development frameworks, such as Flutter and React Native, allow developers to target these devices in a cross-platform way. They provide access to the APIs and features of the hardware, and a streamlined way to write a majority of your app once, while targeting multiple platforms. Other frameworks such as Cordova or Capacitor even allow for using modern web technologies, and having a fully bundled app that can be released on the app store.


Mobile development provides amazing functionality and allows for powerful applications to be built. However, it comes at a cost. These applications can only run on the latest and greatest hardware and OS version. Most mobile users do not have access to the hardware we, as developers, are using to build our applications. What takes a few seconds to load on 5G using an iPhone 12 Max could take nearly a minute to load on phones common in most of the world. Also, final application sizes are going to impact how many users can actually download our app in the first place.

In many cases, a mobile application in the app store could become more of a burden than a benefit. Consider that you're visiting a foreign country. Because you are roaming, your internet speed is significantly slower than you are used to. While traveling in a city, you want to check for bus routes and schedules. You go to the website for the municipal bus system, and are directed to download an app to view schedules. This app is not too large (my local bus system's app is 8.6 MB), but on your slower connection still takes a long time to download. Also, you may only need this app once or twice, before you travel to your next destination. A website (or PWA) would provide a much smoother experience than requiring a mobile app be downloaded.


Regardless of which architecture you decide to use for building out your mobile application, there are some considerations to keep in mind. First, your developers are going to have better hardware and internet connection than many of your users. Most users do not have a high-end iPhone or Android device, and are not on 5G or gigabit internet. Whether you're building a PWA or a native app, remember that every megabyte will take substantially longer to download and initialize, and your application will run slower. If able, you should test your applications on slower or ittermitant internet speeds, or on lower end hardware.

In general, if you are going to build a mobile application, it has to be lean, loadable, and support offline use. Many companies, (and some end users), will try to push for new features or content without regard for the experience of all users. Setting up a truly performant and offline-friendly experience is complicated, but it truly is worth taking into account all potential users as you work to build and deploy it.

If you decide that building a progressive web app is the way to go for your app or company, it is important to remember that PWAs are not supported in Safari or on iOS/iPadOS. On both iPhones and iPads, the only browser engine is WebKit, regardless of which browser you are using. This means that users will not be able to install your PWA on Apple mobile devices, and the browser APIs may not be available. Take this into account while building your app, and allow for graceful degredation when features are not available. This is not to say that you shouldn't build a PWA if you want to target Apple's ecosystem - much the opposite! The more PWAs that exist, and have a large number of users on Apple's devices, the better chance that Apple will support the standardized browser features that enable PWAs.

At the end of the day, choose the architecture that best supports your users, and build with them in mind. Your app should help your users and customers in some way, and should not be a burden to them. It may be fun to try out a new mobile framework, or build a PWA with enhanced features, but not if it does not serve the end user.

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