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Improving the Performance of Vue 3 Applications Using v-memo and KeepAlive


When building a Vue application, you will encounter performance issues as your app grows, causing it to run slower than it should.

Most performance problems in web apps arise from performing tasks repeatedly, even when there is no need to. For example, if you had a list of thousands of items, and had to re-render all items when a single thing changed, you'd quickly encounter performance problems. The ideal solution would be to update only what changes.

For the most part, VueJS does this well, and Vue 3 came with many performance improvements out of the box. However, in more complex applications, we may need more fine-grained control over what gets re-rendered and what does not.

In this article, we are going to look at how we can use v-memo, and KeepAlive as solutions to performance problems in Vue applications.

Two leading solutions to performance problems in Vue JS


Memoization is like a superpower that helps your app remember things without having to constantly redo the same calculations, or processes over and over again. This allows the applications to perform faster and more efficiently, which is the ultimate goal for any web developer.

Think about it; when you were a kid, your teachers always taught you to memorize things to save time. The same is valid for web applications. With memoization, they can remember the results of a calculation or process, so they don't have to waste time recalculating it every time they need the same result.

For example, imagine you have a website that requires users to enter their birthdates to access certain content. If a user enters their birthdate for the first time, the application will calculate their age. With memoization, the next time the user comes to the website and enters their birthdate, the application can use the previously computed result instead of recalculating it from scratch.

That's the beauty of memoization! It saves time and resources, and gives the user a faster and smoother experience. Try memoization if you want your web application to perform at its best. You'll be amazed at how much of a difference it makes!

To take advantage of this in Vue, we'll be using the v-memo directive. More on this shortly.


Caching works by storing a copy of frequently used data and resources so that the application can access them quickly without having to go through the entire process of rendering and fetching the data from scratch.

Think of it like this. When you visit a website for the first time, the browser has to fetch all the resources needed to display the page. But if you see the same website again, the browser can use the cached data, resulting in a faster and smoother experience for the user.

We can take advantage of caching in our Vue applications using KeepAlive.

Using v-memo

V-memo was added in Vue 3.2 and, as far as I am aware, will not be back-ported to Vue 2.

You can use v-memo by passing the directive to the element/component whose dependencies you want to memoize. In this case, this would be an element/component that would be computationally expensive to re-render each time a dependency changed.

Here's an example of how you could use the v-memo directive:

<div v-memo="[dependencyA, dependencyB]">
<!-- Some components that would be expensive to render →

Note that it accepts an array of dependency values. And if every value in the array is the same as the last render, updates for the entire sub-tree will be skipped. The dependency values are those that's changes you'd like to be checked and memoized anytime they change. You can learn more about how v-memo works from the official Vue JS documentation.

In this case, if the value of dependencyA or dependencyB changed, we would re-render the children of the div. However, if neither dependencyA nor dependencyB changed, we would skip the re-rendering process. This means that any computationally intensive tasks that were needed to occur in the re-render would not be triggered, and as a result, our application would perform better.

Using KeepAlive

Another alternative solution to performance issues is caching, where the KeepAlive option comes in. KeepAlive is a built-in vue component that allows us to cache component instances when dynamically switching between multiple components conditionally. Using KeepAlive in Vue 3 is straightforward. You can wrap the components you want to cache inside a KeepAlive component. Here's a sample code:

    <component :is="currentComponent"/>

<script setup>
  import { ref, onMounted } from 'vue'
  import ComponentA from './ComponentA.vue'
  import ComponentB from './ComponentB.vue'

   const currentComponent = ref(ComponentA)

  onMounted(() => {
     setInterval(() => {
          currentComponent.value = currentComponent.value === ComponentA ? ComponentB : ComponentA
        }, 1000)


In this example, we use the KeepAlive component to conditionally cache the ComponentA and ComponentB instances, which are dynamically switched using the currentComponent reactive property. With the KeepAlive component, we can maintain the state of these components even when they are not active, which can lead to improved performance.


In this article, we talked about how we can improve the performance of our VueJS applications using memoization and caching. In the case of memoization, we can use the v-memo VueJS directive that was introduced in Vue 3.2. Alternatively, when we want to cache component instances, we can use the built-in Vue KeepAlive component. By utilizing both v-memo and KeepAlive, you can optimize the performance of your Vue 3 applications, resulting in faster and smoother user experiences.

That being said, if you are looking to start a new Vue JS project and need help with how to structure your project, feel free to check out our Vue JS GitHub showcases, which showcase (no kidding) a mini-GitHub clone application built using Vue in different ways (e.g., using Nuxt, [Quasar], Vite, etc.). Alternatively, if you are looking to start a new project without worrying about all the config required, you can check out the Vue JS starter kit instead. Thanks for checking this out!

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